Yi Hyun - How is Media Manipulated
I went to university back in the 80s. The 80s were dark times. When people from my generation look at today’s university students, we’re really jealous on one hand. They’re a lot more carefree than we are. When I was in university, times were dark and depression, and we had a lot of issues to worry about.
When I went to university- you know that metal sculpture in the front of Seoul National University? to the left of that we, the students would walk in single file, and to the right, you know who would enter the campus? The police. In front of Seoul National University is the largest police station in Asia. The station is about 1.5, 2 kms to the school and there would be a line of policemen extending from the station all the way to the front gate of the school in the morning, where they would enter with the students. How many police men would enter? A minimum of 1000 policemen, every day.
The campus was filled with police. Every bench was occupied with a police man. Every spot of grass where students could sit down was in hearing range of a police man. Because of this, you couldn’t smile at school. If you smiled, you either had mental issues, or you has NO thoughts whatsoever to the situation around you.
This is a time when we felt that every phone inside the school was bugged. We knew every room was bugged too. So when we communicated in our rooms, we hardly ever talked. If it was important, we wrote it down. What did we do with the papers that we wrote things down on? We burned them.
Participating in a protest once for us was something that could get you killed. So we had to be really careful when spreading the news about a protest. You NEVER passed on information about a protest by phone. What would happen is you would walk through the grass fields, and an upperclassmen would, from behind, start walking next to you, and as they walk side by side with you, without looking at you, they’d say “month, day, time” and the second you heard that your heart would start racing. You feel like you’ve become a independence fighter. And because of that idealism, you’d end up going to the protest despite how dangerous it was.
Later on, if you guys study Communications, publication, sociology, history, or political science, you’ll be granted access to historical archives of the newspapers of the 1980s and of before, during Park’s dictatorship or Chun’s. Back then, there were the 4 major papers since it was before the creation of the Hangyureh, but the 4 papers were the Chosun, the Donga, the Joongang, and the Hanguk were the 4 major papers.
In that era, all 4 papers would be the same. If you looked at the front page, every newspaper, everyday would be the same. There would be a picture in the upper left or in the upper center. What picture? Park Chunghwee’s picture, or Chun Duhwan’s picture. Doesn’t it sound like I’m talking about North Korea right now?
Even the titles of articles were the same. How do newspapers produce articles with the same titles? Do all reporters think as one?
The secret was revealed, how that was possible.
One of my upperclassmen became a reporter. He was a person who believed that he could instill justice in society through the pen. So he dreamed of writing of what’s right, and so he dreamed of becoming a reporter, and eventually became a reporter.
He became a reporter, but they had him writing fiction novels.
When Chun DuHwan was in power, go read the Chosun Daily. Notice how they praise, almost worship Chun. Those apathetic bastards. I have never heard about these people apologizing. I haven’t heard of them kneeling in front of the Korean masses and apologizing for what they did. That newspaper still remains today.
This is the newspaper that, during the Gwangju massacre, called the people protesting for democracy as “thugs under the control of North Korean agents” and called it the Gwangju riots, I haven’t heard of the people responsible for this ever apologizing.
Anyways, my upperclassmen who became a reporter, he would ask the other reporters with more experience who were older than him if they became a reporter to be doing this shit, is this what a reporter should be doing? And every single one of them told him he was too naive and he was too young.
Back then there was a government ministry called the Ministry of Culture and Public Relations, and inside this ministry was the department of Public Relations and Advertisement. Every day, this department would fax something to every major newspaper’s editing office. The title of this fax was “Government Order on Reporting”.
The things that were on the order were things such as "do not ever write an article on x", number 2, "when writing an article about a certain topic, do not ever use a certain phrase in the title", number 3, "when writing an article about a certain topic, make sure to use the specified phrase in the title", and finally number 4, "limit the length of an article to a specific number of lines of print".
The measurement in Korea back in the days was dan. Now, all the newspapers are read horizontally, but back in the 80s, you would read the newspaper vertically, from top to bottom, and then left to write. A dan represented a vertical length. It still remains to this day, as a front page of a newspaper, disregarding the margins, is 13 dan from top to bottom. This order would tell the newspapers to only reserve 1 dan for a certain story, or 5 dans for another story.
So if a story is 1 dan, would the story’s importance be emphasized or not? Of course not, the importance of the story would be presented as being very small. If the story covers a whole 5 dans, more than 1/3 of the front page, the story becomes larger, more discussed, seemingly more important. If a story was as large as 8 dans, it’s top news. But hardly any stories went up to 8 dans and even a story that’s 5 dans was big news.
What’s funny is that no matter how trivial something is, if you give it 5 dans of newspaper coverage on the front page, it seems like a dire matter. Inversely, if you take a very important topic and only give it 1 dan of coverage on the front page, the story feels trivial or it isn’t even seen.
This is the basics of media manipulation.
And then enters the TV. How do you manipulate the TV news to emphasize importance? What is the basic of TV news media manipulation?
The order the stories are presented in.
The first story presented is the story the broadcasting center chose as the most important. We too perceive the first story as the most important.
Do you understand?
So back in the days of Park and Chun, it was the government who was deciding this, up to the mid 80s. It helped that there was a government official in every editing office. Members of the Korean CIA would be in the editing office and oversee the newspapers and news shows and reporters.
And that’s why you got the same newspaper everyday.
My upperclassmen who became a reporter took the report orders and copied them and kept them. He kept them and archived them, and eventually he had a press conference.
A reporter opening a press conference.
At this press conference, he didn’t call any Korean reporters. Why? Because if he called Korean reporters, Korean CIA agents came with them. So at this press conference he only called foreign press groups. Reuters, AF press, the AP. These are the groups he called.
Calling in these foreign press groups, he leaked the report orders and explained ”here is a dictatorship which manipulates the media like this”. He leaked the secret to the whole world.
In Korea, we call this the Report Order Incident.
What do you think happened to him? He went to jail. He was fired from his job and then taken to jail. Do you know what they charged him with? Releasing national secrets.
Do you think it was easy for him to become a whistleblower? It probably wasn’t. He would have known that he was going to be taken to jail, right? He knew that he was going to be fired.
But it wasn’t just being fired and being imprisoned. Back then they would torture you. There are people who are disabled today because of the injuries they sustained being beaten and tortured. There are people who died during the torture that they would inflict on prisoners. Do you think he wasn’t afraid of the torture? He probably had the shit beaten out of him. Was he not scared of it?
He probably thought of a lot of things. Does me doing this change the world in the slightest way? Does me doing this alone cause any change in the world? Don’t you think he asked himself these questions?
When this happened, he had just married. Do you think he wasn’t worried for his wife?
Mengzi said, 2300 years ago, to call what is right, right, sometimes you must have the courage to risk your life to do it. To call something wrong, wrong, you have to risk your means of surviving disappearing. And because of that fear, in the face of power, we have a hard time saying what is right is right, and what is wrong is wrong.
Nancy Wake, who has died in London just before her 99th birthday, was a New Zealander brought up in Australia. She became a nurse, a journalist who interviewed Adolf Hitler, a wealthy French socialite, a British agent and a French resistance leader. She led 7,000 guerrilla fighters in battles against the Nazis in the northern Auvergne, just before the D-Day landings in 1944. On one occasion, she strangled an SS sentry with her bare hands. On another, she cycled 500 miles to replace lost codes. In June 1944, she led her fighters in an attack on the Gestapo headquarters at Montlucon in central France.
Ms Wake was furious the TV series [later made about her life] suggested she had had a love affair with one of her fellow fighters. She was too busy killing Nazis for amorous entanglements, she said.
Nancy recalled later in life that her parachute had snagged in a tree. The French resistance fighter who freed her said he wished all trees bore “such beautiful fruit.” Nancy retorted: “Don’t give me that French shit.”
Anonymous asked: I read your Winter Soldier analysis, and I have a question : you say that "There’s a reason his code name is drawn from an investigation into one of the ugliest chapters of American history." Please help a non-American understand what you meant? I mean I obviously see the Cold War reference in the movie, but from what you've written it seems like something more subtle *within* the Cold War... shit, I mean just "Cold War" seems too evident and I can't find the deeper meaning?
Oh gosh, don’t feel bad, there are plenty of Americans who have never even heard of this.
The Winter Soldier Investigation was a 1971 veteran-organized media event intended to draw attention to the war crimes that had taken place in Vietnam. Directly inspired by the exposure of the My Lai Massacre (the mass murder of over five hundred unarmed civilians by American troops) in 1969, Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) brought together discharged servicemen from every branch of the military to discuss the atrocities they had seen and committed during their time in the war. They hoped bring these tragedies before the public eye, and to prove that American military policies led directly to the death and torment of civilians. Eventually a transcript from this conference made its way before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee during the Fullbright Hearings.
When Ed Brubaker, the author who wrote the original Winter Soldier arc, chose the name, he wanted something that would call up both cold Siberian winters and the atrocities of war. This fit the bill.
But the term itself, the idea of “winter soldiers”, was coined by VVAW as a response to the writings of Thomas Paine, who described the men who deserted at Valley Forge during the American Revolution:
These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country, but he that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.
A winter soldier is someone who will warm their hands over a meager fire and weather the cold. Someone who refuses to abandon their country and its potential, no matter what the personal cost.
So how’s that for a weird little twist? According to Thomas Paine—activist, political philosopher, and revolutionary—the real winter soldier is Captain America.
The spread of the black death.
Poland, tell us your secret.
Poland is the
If I remember correctly, Poland’s secret is that the jews where being blamed all over europe (as usual) as scapegoats for the black plague. Poland was the only place that accepted Jewish refugees, so pretty much all of them moved there.
Now, one of the major causes of getting the plague was poor hygiene. This proved very effective for the plague because everyone threw their poop into the streets because there were no sewers, and literally no one bathed because it was against their religion. Unless they were jewish, who actually bathed relatively often. When all the jews moved to Poland, they brought bathing with them, and so the plague had little effect there.
Milan survived by quarantining its city and burning down the house of anyone showing early symptoms, with the entire family inside it.
I reblogged this tons of times, but the Milan info is new.
Damn Italy, you scary.
Poland: “Hey, feeling a bit down? Have a quick wash! There, you see? All better”
Milan: “Aw, feeling a bit sick are we? BURN MOTHERFUCKER, BURN!!!!!”
Also, this might have something to do with it: from what I understand, O blood type is uncommonly… common in Poland. Something to do with large families in small villages and a LOT of intermarriage. The black plague was caused by a bacterium that produced, in its waste in the human body, wastes that very closely mimic the “B” marker sugars on red blood cells that keep the body from attacking its own immune system. Anyone who has a B blood type had an immune system that was naturally desensitized to the presence of the bacterium, and therefore was more prone to developing the disease. Anyone who had an O type was doubly lucky because the O blood type means the total absence of ANY markers, A or B, meaning that their bodys’ immune system would react quickly and violently against the invaders, while someone with an A may show symptoms and recover more slowly, while someone with B would have just died. Because O is a recessive blood type, it shows in higher numbers when more people who carry the recessive genes marry other people who also carry the recessive gene. Poland, which has a nearly 700 year history of being conquered by or partnering with every other nation in the surrounding area, was primarily an agricultural country, focused around smaller, farming communities where people were legally tied to, and required to work, “their” land, and so historically never “spread” their genes across a large area. The economy was, and had been, unstable for a very long period of time leading up to the plague, the government had been ineffective and had very little reach in comparison to the armies of the other countries around for a very very long time, and so its people largely remained in small communities where multiple generations of cross-familial inbreeding could have allowed for this more recessive gene to show up more frequently. Thus, there could be a higher percentage of O blood types in any region of the country, guaranteeing less spread of the illness and moving slower when it did manage to travel. Combine this with the fact that there were very few large, urban centers where the disease would thrive, and with the above facts, and you’ve got a lovely recipe for avoiding the plague.
Interestingly enough, as a result from the plague, the entirety of Europe now has a higher percentage of people with O blood type than any other region of the world.
WHY IS THIS ALL SO COOL
When Tumblr teaches you more about the plague than 12 years of school ever did.
Just to throw a nod in, as a medieval historian, this is all credible, and is the leading theory as to the plagues effectiveness at this point. So. Enjoy your new knowledge!
WHERE ARE MY HISTORY FOLKS.
This archive is incredible. I’ve discovered it today and have just been rolling around the WWII section. So many sad, wonderful, moving and fascinating things captured on film.
IT’S AMAZING, ISN’T IT??
I was turned onto it when my filmmaker buddy was trawling it for a project he was doing, and I kind of fell into it face-first and didn’t surface for a week or so. So much good stuff!
During the Bubonic Plague, doctors wore these bird-like masks to avoid becoming sick. They would fill the beaks with spices and rose petals, so they wouldn’t have to smell the rotting bodies.
A theory during the Bubonic Plague was that the plague was caused by evil spirits. To scare the spirits away, the masks were intentionally designed to be creepy.
Mission fucking accomplished
Okay so I love this but it doesn’t cover the half of why the design is awesome and actually borders on making sense.
It wasn’t just that they didn’t want to smell the infected and dead, they thought it was crucial to protecting themselves. They had no way of knowing about what actually caused the plague, and so one of the other theories was that the smell of the infected all by itself was evil and could transmit the plague. So not only would they fill their masks with aromatic herbs and flowers, they would also burn fires in public areas, so that the smell of the smoke would “clear the air”. This all related to the miasma theory of contagion, which was one of the major theories out there until the 19th century. And it makes sense, in a way. Plague victims smelled awful, and there’s a general correlation between horrible septic smells and getting horribly sick if you’re around what causes them for too long.
You can see now that we’ve got two different theories as to what caused the plague that were worked into the design. That’s because the whole thing was an attempt by the doctors to cover as many bases as they could think of, and we’re still not done.
The glass eyepieces. They were either darkened or red, not something you generally want to have to contend with when examining patients. But the plague might be spread by eye contact via the evil eye, so best to ward that off too.
The illustration shows a doctor holding a stick. This was an examination tool, that helped the doctors keep some distance between themselves and the infected. They already had gloves on, but the extra level of separation was apparently deemed necessary. You could even take a pulse with it. Or keep people the fuck away from you, which was apparently a documented use.
Finally, the robe. It’s not just to look fancy, the cloth was waxed, as were all of the rest of their clothes. What’s one of the properties of wax? Water-based fluids aren’t absorbed by it. This was the closest you could get to a sterile, fully protecting garment back then. Because at least one person along the line was smart enough to think “Gee, I’d really rather not have the stuff coming out of those weeping sores anywhere on my person”.
So between all of these there’s a real sense that a lot of real thought was put into making sure the doctors were protected, even if they couldn’t exactly be sure from what. They worked with what information they had. And frankly, it’s a great design given what was available! You limit exposure to aspirated liquids, limit exposure to contaminated liquids already present, you limit contact with the infected. You also don’t give fleas any really good place to hop onto. That’s actually useful.
Beyond that, there were contracts the doctors would sign before they even got near a patient. They were to be under quarantine themselves, they wouldn’t treat patients without a custodian monitoring them and helping when something had to be physically contacted, and they would not treat non-plague patients for the duration. There was an actual system in place by the time the plague doctors really became a thing to make sure they didn’t infect anyone either.
These guys were the product of the scientific process at work, and the scientific process made a bitchin’ proto-hazmat suit. And containment protocols!
The things I would have done to the young John Winchester were unheard of in the 1970’s. He makes me so hot that I would rewrite history for one night with that man.
Submitted by anonymous.
Ah, youth. Unless it involved electricity it probably wasn’t unheard of in the 1770’s.
This BAMF lady here, is called Hannah Snell :D
She was born in Worcester in 1723, low class, and married in 1744 to James Snell, who wasn’t exactly the poster boy at being a husband - he got her pregnant, then sold off her possessions to pay for his whores, and eventually ran off and left her and the baby, who died at seven months.
Most people would have remarried, but not Hannah - she dressed up as a man, created the alias James Gray, and JOINED THE ARMY in order to find him.
Now, she joined in 1745, ended up fighting in Scotland due to the Jacobite rebellion at the time, but then ended up being given five hundred lashes for refusing to obey her sergeant (who had ordered her to find a whore for him).
So she deserted, walked from Carlisle (where she was based), to Portsmouth, AND JOINED THE MARINES.
While still pretending to be James Gray.
She spent the next five years sailing round the world, fighting in land and sea battles, and being noted for her bravery under fire, and in one battle (at Pondicherry in India), she was horrifically injured - five shots to one leg, six to the other, and one to the groin.
While lying in the field hospital waiting to be seen, she knew that she’d end up being discovered - so what did she do?
She got an orderly to find her bandages and liniment, and then, using her fingers, dug out the shot, dressed the wound, and when the surgeons came round, she told them she was just shot in the legs.
She was fully healed in three months.
Nothing stopped her, and even with sharing the same sleeping areas as her friends, as her officers (she was the batman for many an officer), even sharing the same bed, she wasn’t found out!
In 1750 however, she was discharged along with her fellow Marines, and once they collected all their money, they went to the pub (as you would).
In the middle of the pub, she stood up, and said to her friends:
“Why gentlemen, James Gray will cast off his skin like a snake and become a new creature. In a word, gentlemen, I am as much a woman as my mother ever was, and my real name is Hannah Snell.”
One of her friends proposed on the spot.
Her friends then persuaded her to apply for a pension from the head of the English army, the Duke of Cumberland. Hannah followed this advice and approached the Duke on 16 June 1750 while he was reviewing troops in St. James’s Park. Surprised by the curious figure standing before him, the Duke accepted a petition from Hannah, which detailed her many adventures.
Within days, news of Hannah’s exploits had trickled into the London press and the public clamoured for more information. Eager to profit from this notoriety, Hannah immediately sold her story to the London publisher, Robert Walker. Her appearances on stage in uniform caused a sensation, and the news of her adventures quickly spread across Britain.
In November 1750, the Royal Chelsea Hospital officially recognised Snell’s military service and granted her a lifetime pension. She lived for another forty years, marrying twice and raising two sons, having a brief run on the stage as a celebrity, and opening her own pub called “The Female Warrior”. In 1791 however, Snell was admitted to the lunatic asylum, Bedlam, where she died six months later.
And the husband who had started this all?
He was pressganged by the Dutch Navy, and died in a bar, penniless :D
Needless to say, these are the days I wish I had a TARDIS so I could find her and FLAIL :D
(Information about her taken from The Female Soldier; Or, The surprising Adventures of Hannah Snell (1st edition), The Augustan Reprint Society, publ. No. 257, Los Angeles, 1989, and http://www.hannahsnell.com/biography.htm . Photo from Google :))